UK Will Miss Almost All 2020 Wildlife Targets
Damian Carrington & Patrick Wintour, The Guardian, March 23 2019. Abridged.
The UK will miss almost all the 2020 nature targets it signed up to a decade ago, according to a report by the government’s official advisers. The nation is failing to protect threatened species; end the degradation of land; reduce agricultural pollution; and increase funding for green schemes, the assessment concludes. It also says the UK is not ending unsustainable fishing; stopping the arrival of invasive alien species; nor raising public awareness of the importance of biodiversity.
The targets were set in 2010 by the global Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the report from the joint nature conservation committee (JNCC) found insufficient progress was being made on 14 of the 19 targets.
The news came on the day Britain formally launched its bid to host the UN climate change conference in 2020, seeking to prove its green credentials are not tarnished and to show the disarray that has been caused by Brexit does not mean the UK has forfeited its right to be a major international player. Speaking at a launch event for the bid in Downing Street, the foreign secretary, Jeremy Hunt, said: “Most importantly of all, we are ambitious. If we are going to ensure that future generations do not pay a price for our prosperity today, we must collectively change our economies and societies. We believe this can be done and protecting the environment can go hand-in- hand with economic growth.”
Critics of the government said the report showed wildlife and natural habitats were in deep crisis. The UK is “among the most nature-depleted countries in the world”, according to a separate 2016 report, with continuing declines in species such as skylarks, hedgehogs, many insects including butterflies and corn marigolds.
“The JNCC report says nature in the UK is pretty bad, declining and not recovering, and that is in the context of an awful lot of rhetoric [from ministers] about being a world leader on the environment,” said Kate Jennings, the head of site conservation policy at the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB).
The environment minister Thérèse Coffey said: “Nature matters. Our species and ecosystems are valued in their own right, but they also contribute to our well-being and economic prosperity. We acknowledge that in many areas there are ongoing declines in nature, but there are real points of progress on which we can build. Our 25 Year Environment Plan is a step-change in ambition.”
A key CBD target is to improve the conservation status of threatened species but the report says “there have been widespread and significant ongoing declines across many species”, such as farmland birds and pollinating insects. Another of the 2020 targets is to cut the rate of loss and degradation of natural habitats to “close to zero”. While the report says some places have improved, there have been “ongoing losses of natural and semi-natural habitat, for example through neglect or development”.
The target to cut fertiliser and other pollution to levels that do not harm biodiversity is being missed, the report says, with little reduction in sensitive habitats since 2010 and with 65% of inland and coastal waters remaining below target levels. Only about half of fish stocks are sustainably caught, the report says, meaning the target to end overfishing will be missed.
European farms could grow green and still be able to feed population.
Rebecca Smithers, The Guardian, Wed 20 Feb 2019.
Europe would still be able to feed its growing population even if it switched entirely to environmentally friendly approaches such as organic farming, according to a new report from a think-tank.
A week after research revealed a steep decline in global insect populations that has been linked to the use of pesticides, the study from European thinktank IDDRI claims such chemicals can be phased out and greenhouse gas emissions radically reduced in Europe through agroecological farming, while still producing enough nutritious food for an increasing population.
Agroecology takes into account natural ecosystems and uses local knowledge to plant crops that increase the sustainability of the farming system as a whole. The IDDRI study, entitled Ten Years for Agroecology, used modelling to examine the reduction in yields that would result from a transition to such an approach.
Reductions, the authors argue, could be mitigated by eliminating food-feed competition – reorienting diets towards plant-based proteins and pasture-fed livestock, and away from grain-fed white meat. More than half the EU’s cereals and oilseed crops are fed to animals. The study models a future in which European meat production has been cut by 40%, with the greatest reductions in grain-fed pork and poultry.
“Pesticide-hungry intensive production is not the only way to feed a growing population” said Rob Percival, the head of food policy at the Soil Association. “The Ten Years for Agroecology study shows that agroecological and organic farming can feed Europe a healthy diet, while responding to climate change, phasing out pesticides, and maintaining vital biodiversity.”
The study suggests that agroecology – using ecological principles first and chemicals last in agriculture – presents a credible way of feeding Europe by 2050. But it says action is needed now, with the next 10 years critical in engaging Europe in the transition. The agriculture bill now going through parliament in the UK makes no mention of agroecology, although an amendment drafted by a cross-party group of MPs proposed that farmers using the approach should receive some sort of payment.
Could flexitarianism save the planet?
“The idea of an entirely agroecological Europe is often considered unrealistic in terms of food security because agroecology sometimes means lower yields,” said Percival. “But this new research shows that by refocusing diets around plant-based proteins and pasture-fed livestock, a fully agroecological Europe is possible.”
The study is being published in parallel with the UK launch of the Eat-Lancet “planetary health diet”, which proposes a shift towards a more plant-based diet. The agroecology study addresses similar concerns, but places greater emphasis on farmland biodiversity.
[Extract from a lightly longer article; go to above link for full version].
The UK has failed to make any cuts to emissions from agriculture. Again.
New government statistics released 22 August show UK farming emitted 49.1 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2015, the exact same amount as a year before and remaining at about the same level since 2008.Overall, agriculture accounted for about 10 percent of the UK’s greenhouse gas
While the sector only contributed one percent of the UK’s carbon dioxide emissions, it was responsible for 53 percent of the UK’s methane emissions. Methane is a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, and – pound for pound – can trap much more heat in the atmosphere over the course of a couple of decades.
Agricultural emissions come from a variety of sources. The production of animal feed is the main driver, while generating power to keep the industry going also creates a lot of emissions. Livestock such as cows, sheep and pigs also emit a lot of methane.
A recent study suggested converting land for farming has led to the release of 133 billion tons of carbon dioxide globally over the last 12,000 years. That’s the equivalent of 13 years of global emissions from all sectors at their current levels, the Washington Post pointed out.
Since 2008, the UK has failed to cut its agricultural emissions, with reductions stalling at about 17 percent below 1990 levels. There is no specific climate target for the agriculture sector, instead the industry is captured under the UK Climate Change Act’s general 80 percent greenhouse gas emissions reduction target, from 1990 levels, by 2050. continues…
Ballast-Water Reform. An international agreement on ballast-water, water which is taken on by ships for stability and when discharged, often on the other side of the world releasing invasive species, causing huge problems for local marine wildlife. As of September 8th, all discharged ballast-water will have to be treated beforehand.
Shrinking Shorelines. The UK National Ecosystem Assessment estimates coastal habitat has decreased by 16% since 1945. In England, this has amounted to a loss of some 13,000 hectares with only 800 hectares created or restored.
Pesticides and Profitability. New research from France has found that reduction of pesticide does not necessarily result in reduced crop yields and profitability. The study looked at 946 non-organic arable commercial farms showing contrasting levels of pesticide use and covering a wide range of production situations in France. It was estimated that, on 59% of farms nationally, total pesticide use could be reduced by 42% without any negative effects. France hopes by 2025 to cut pesticide use by 50%. The UK has no plans to reduce overall pesticide use.
June 17. A dear friend of mine went for a walk out from Alfriston today, in the heart of the South Downs and through the Cuckmere Valley. He was commenting on the “crops gently swaying in the breeze. How lucky we are to have such diligent farmers growing our fine food.” I don’t know about diligent, they and the agro-chemical industry have certainly messed-up the once wonderful balance that used to exist between farming and wildlife.
There is a middle way of doing things, note The Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust’s Allerton Project is based at Loddington in Leicestershire – (https://www.gwct.org.uk/allerton/about-the-allerton-project/ ) Or the RSPB’s Hope Farm, a 181-hectare (450-acre) arable farm in Cambridgeshire (https://www.rspb.org.uk/our-work/conservation/conservation-and-sustainability/farming/hopefarm/the_farm.aspx ) The government and public opinion just need to encourage and finance farming post Brexit along that route.
He wrote on: “The Cuckmere river is in a state, either side of white bridge it can’t be more than 6′ [feet] wide, strangled with weed & silt!” Man interferes with rivers at his peril – note all the Environment Agency schemes across the country reinstating river’s natural features and their courses, back to how they naturally once were in various places across the country. So maybe as it’s not built over, its time to consider breaching the Cuckmere’s banks and let the river re-connect with its floodplain?
BATS. Two interesting facts on long distance migration of bats have been made known. In December 2013, a specie of Pipistrelle was found in northern Netherlands, having been ringed in Somerset some three years earlier. The second involved one being trapped during October 2015 in East Sussex, it having been ringed as a sub-adult two months earlier in Latvia. In its first year of life, this bat had made a journey of 1,460km over a period of some seven weeks.
COUNTRYSIDE STEWARDSHIP. England’s agri-environment scheme is said to be a shambles. With an inflexible start date of 1st January, some farmers are being left financially high and dry because their previous HLS Scheme ends after 1st January, they then being out of pocket for 11 months. Complexity of CS and insufficient Natural England staff to administer the scheme are making matters worse.
PESTICIDES and GAMEBIRDS. Work carried out in Sussex by the Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust have shown that foliar insecticides and insecticidal seed dressings are having a significant effect on the species of insect that are important food sources for young game birds. No wonder many of our farmland bird species are struggling!
PESTICIDE BAN. Meanwhile, perhaps France is showing the way forward, for there will be a total ban on pesticide use in public gardens, parks and forests. As from 2019, this ban will be extended to prohibit use in private gardens (apart from use by professionals). This seems a good idea when seeing the amount shelf space devoted to pesticides in our garden centres (not to mention the stench coming from them). Many people reach for their killer of choice without a clue of the environmental damage some of these concoctions can have!
NITROGEN. The Plant Link UK network has issued a new report, ‘We Need To Talk About Nitrogen…’ and it has the backing of the National Trust, Woodland Trust and the RSPB. It highlights the serious damage that nitrogen deposition is having upon the UK’s semi-natural habitats and wildlife. I’ve been banging on about this problem for years, one which partially instigated my setting-up in the 1990’s of conservation grazing by ponies in Sussex.
Prof Mark Sutton from the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology has been appointed Chair of the International Nitrogen Initiative. Prof Sutton said that ‘in the EU alone, the fertilizer value of nitrogen losses from agriculture is around 14 billion Euros per year, equivalent to losing 25% of the European Agricultural Policy (CAP) budget (or 10% of the entire EU budget) up in smoke or down the drain.’
DEFRA DEFICIENT. There’s a widespread feeling in Westminster that DEFRA will not be up to the job of sorting out the huge amount of environmental law and new agricultural regulation following Brexit. Since 2006 the department has lost 2,285 members from its core staff. It has also suffered from crippling and on-going cuts to its budget. Put in context, currently the Civil Service is leaner than it has been since the Second World War and simply does not have the capacity to deal with the gargantuan task of leaving the EU.
And so the cool, dry spring continues without much prospect of change until towards the end of May…
May 6th and during the evening there was a group of 7 swifts hawking for insects in the cold easterly wind, high over St.Leonards old town. Still numbers of turnstones along the beach. May 8th and as I sat down to my breakfast, 6 swallows flew across the street at window height in that purposeful, determined flight behaviour that characterises swallows on migration, heading north-westwards. I wished them well.
May 8th. There’s still a reasonable population of english elms in the vicinity of the station at Pevensey. Also nearby, are a number of trees (poplar?) with thriving plants of mistletoe high in their crowns; nice to see.
May 18th. In the following pic, scrub-bashing with a difference! These fellas are removing dense ivy from off the cliff face at Rock-A-nor at Hastings in order to attach steel mesh safety netting as can be seen above them. They’re working from off ropes using pneumatically powered equipment.
On the same day in the evening, saw this amazing ‘barley-twist’ cloud formation.
May 24th. There were 10 swifts over St.Leonards old town as I sat having breakfast. Went for a walk in Ham Street Woods National Nature Reserve in Kent, a lovely wood but unfortunately there appears to be not a lot of coppicing now going on – how this wood was traditionally managed. Saw this tree which many years ago had suffered severe trauma, survived and prospered!
Nearby the entrance to the woods stands a row of four Victorian(?) cottages. I thought they were very unusual in that the upper storey is clad all around the entire block with butt-jointed slates with strips fixed over the vertical joints.
On this jaunt I travelled by train and spotted just west of Winchelsea good and bad farming practice – the latter almost certainly contravening government/EU regulations by cultivating as close to a watercourse as physically possible. The adjacent water must be receiving a very unhealthy cocktail of fertilizer and chemicals First, good practice with 2 metre wide uncultivated headlands on a neighbouring farm and then the bad. Apologies that the second doesn’t make the point very obvious but the train was going quite fast! Stile and post are on nearside of watercourse.
In the evening, saw my first painted lady butterfly; it was in beautiful condition and probably had not long arrived from across the Channel. About 10 swifts screaming high overhead mid-evening. I’m not religious but full marks to the Pope for giving Trump some serious reading matter today!
Government rejects bee-harming pesticide application
We couldn’t have done this without you.
Thousands of you emailed your MPs to keep bee-harming pesticides out of our fields – thank you.
The NFU failed to convince ministers because they didn’t have enough evidence to show that farmers need banned neonics.
They need to face the facts – there’s now a long list of scientific evidence showing the threat bees face from neonics.
Flooding. Two reports have recently been published concerning streamlining and enhancing of the countries response to do with flooding and associated issues: these are by Prof. Dieter Helm, Chairman of the Natural Capital Committee and EFRA’s Future Flood Prevention. they cover such issues as: natural capital systems, flood defence, remunerating landowners for ‘Payments for Ecosystem Services’ (PES), ending the current dysfunctional organisational structure in favour of a more holistic structure, building on floodplains and insurance of building liable to flooding, protection of soils. See http://bit.ly/2exR8kg and http://bit.ly/2fghJPD.
Pesticides and Bees. Recent report written by the Uni of Sussex’s Dave Goulson and available on the Soil Association’s website at http://bit.ly/2fSepfQ draws a surprising conclusion. A majority of the toxic cocktail of chemicals detected in honey and nectar from honey bee and bumblebee nests, seems to be coming via wild flowers such as poppies, hawthorn, buttercup and hogweed even when oilseed rape is in flower.
Weedkillers and Rare Plants. A study recently completed in western France confirms previous work that herbicides on arable crops are eliminating rare arable flowers and having little bearing on the farm crop yield. It suggests that current yields could be maintained with an approximate cut of 50% in the use of herbicides. See http://go.nature.com/2fSrhCy
Bats and Wind Turbines. More work is required as to why wind turbines are killing more bats than was previously expected according to the Uni of Exeter. Better mitigation is required and to discover wht bats are drawn to turbines. See http://bit.ly/2fSiwbB
New Threat to Earthworms. An invasive flatworm which can measure up to 7cm has now been found in the UK and is also spreading on the continent. It feeds on earthworms and land snails. It is thought to have arrived on horticultural produce from Brazil. the Obama worm was first discovered in 2008 on Guernsey. See http://bit.ly/2fzw9fv